Additional Framework Thoughts
BackboneJS + Marionette
Backbone was the first of the client-side MV* frameworks that really took off. It’s also barely a framework - very un-opinionated, thus allowing you do to virtually anything. Marionette is a backbone extension that helps developers implement additional patterns by adding in formal Modules, Controllers, Layouts, Regions, various types of views, as well as an Application. Leveraging these greatly streamlines development both by reducing repetitive code and enforcing a development pattern. Personally I liked this stack because it give you lots of freedom, while still providing pattern guidance. Coming from ASP.NET / C# on the backend, this resonated with me. Last spring I did a 6 part series on building a mapping app using Marionette, that would be a good intro if Backbone + Marionette sound appealing.
For what it’s worth, this is what we used to build the ArcGIS for Open Data application, as it gave us the benefit of solid structural and architectural patterns, while still leaving us lots of flexibility to implement the interface behavior we wanted.
Polymer (aka Web Components aka The Future)
Polymer is a Google project that lets you build applications based on Web Components. The tricky bit is that Web Components is an emerging W3C standard, and no browsers have support for them yet. Undaunted, Polymer provides a set of polyfills (stop-gap code) that let you build and use web components today (IE10+ and evergreen browsers). This project just hit “alpha” in mid-February 2014, so it’s great for experiments, but I’d recommend staying away from this for production. That said, Web Components will be the future of the web, so it is worth getting a general understanding of the concepts. Another side note - both Ember and Angular are aligning themselves to slip-steam their view infrastructure into web components.
General Stuff You Should Know / Use
Underscore / Lo-Dash
Bootstrap is a css framework that allows you to create a “reasonable” web app in minutes - no wonder it’s the most popular front-end framework! Sensible defaults based on a responsive base means that you can throw markup into a file, and after only a few minutes reading the documentation, have a site that looks good on a 27inch iMac and on your phone.
In the famous words of Nike: Just Do It. Start something - anything. Throw it up on github. A great starting point for working with maps is the bootstrap-map-js repo. Slap up something simple. Then build something else.